One thing that causes delays in projects is underestimating drying time. When someone asks, “how long does polyurethane take to dry?” they usually want to know how long it takes to cure.
Therefore, when planning a new wood project, it is crucial to get the timing right, or it could cost you money and your reputation.
After all, nobody wants to be the contractor who promises to deliver a piece in a few days only to show up a month later.
In this article, I’ll discuss
- How long does it take polyurethane to dry?
- How long does water-based polyurethane take to dry?
- How long does oil-based polyurethane take to dry?
- How long does varathane polyurethane take to dry?
- How long for polyurethane to cure?
- How to speed up polyurethane drying time?
Let’s dive right in;
How Long Does Polyurethane Take to Dry?
Polyurethane generally takes around 4 to 6 hours to dry, allowing for a second coat to be applied. The drying time is determined by the type of polyurethane you use. For instance, Water-based polyurethane dries in about 2 hours, while oil-based polyurethane needs about 8 hours to dry.
What is the Difference Between Drying and Curing Time of Polyurethane?
Drying time is the period between coats of polyurethane, while the curing time is when the wooden surface is ready for use.
When polyurethane dries, it stops being tacky and is dry to the touch. You can then apply another coat or more as required.
After the final coat has dried, you can walk on the wood surface with socks on, but you shouldn’t put heavy things on it as it isn’t yet strong enough to support a lot of pressure.
You also shouldn’t spill any liquid on it, or it will seep through the sanded wood, and you’ll have to start all over.
How Long Does Water Based Polyurethane Take to Dry?
The first coat of water-based polyurethane will be touch-dry within 1 to 2 hours, allowing for a second coat to be applied. Full curing and hardness may take up to 7 days. The drying time can vary depending on factors such as humidity, temperature, and the thickness of the applied coat.
How Long Does Oil Based Polyurethane Take to Dry?
Oil-based polyurethane typically takes 4 to 6 hours to dry or be ready for a second coat. Factors like temperature, humidity, and coat thickness can affect drying. Allow adequate drying time for proper curing and durability before adding more coats or using the surface.
How Long Does Polyurethane Take To Cure
When the polyurethane is cured, it means that it has dried completely. You now have the finished product that will easily support your furniture, handle foot traffic, and withstand scratches for the next few years.
The curing time is as follows:
- Water-based polyurethane takes 3 days to 21 days.
- Oil-based Polyurethanes lasts for 21 and 30 days.
Brands such as General Finishes recommend waiting the full 21 days after applying the final coat of the water-based topcoats before active use.
I have developed a polyurethane cure timetable to ensure you can maintain your patience throughout the process. Note that some curing processes may take up to a month, depending on the prevailing weather conditions.
|Water-based Poly||Oil-based Poly|
|Time between coats||8 hours||24 hous|
|Dry to touch||24 hours||48 hours|
|Ready to place things||2 days plus||4 days plus|
|Completely Cured||20 days||30 days|
Factors Affecting Polyurethane Drying
Several factors affect how soon polyurethane dries. They range from the base it’s made of to the conditions they are applied under. Some of these factors are:
1. Type of polyurethane finish
There are two major types of polyurethane finish going by their base composition, and they affect their drying time. They are:
a). Oil-based polyurethane: this type of polyurethane uses petroleum products, minerals, and liquid solvents as the base, making it quite thick and durable.
Oil Based Polyurethane Curing Time
Oil-based polyurethane takes anywhere from 4 hours to 24 hours to dry, depending on the formula. It requires at least 30 days to cure fully.
Fast-drying polyurethane might cure in 21 days, but weather conditions might delay it. Also, woods like rosewood or aromatic cedar may cause project delays due to their natural oils that slow the process.
b). Water-based polyurethane: as the name suggests, this type of polyurethane is mainly comprised of water. The result is you get thinner and lighter coats than oil, the drying phase consists of the water evaporating which means it dries quicker, having a short cure time.
Water Based Polyurethane Drying Time
In optimal conditions, water-based polyurethane is dry and ready for the next coat in 2 hours. It can also fully cure in 3 days, but many factors, such as how many coats, can delay this process, so you should estimate at least 3 weeks.
It is always better to finish a project ahead of time than to ask for more time.
Read also: What type of polyurethane to use on wood floors.
2. The temperature
Heat or temperature is the second most important factor influencing how quickly polyurethane dries and cures.
The ideal temperature for polyurethane to dry is between 70 – 77 degrees Fahrenheit. If the temperature is much lower, it can extend the drying time by a few hours or even days.
Most manufacturers tell you the optimum polyurethane drying temperature for applying the finish. If the temperature is in the mid-50s, they might tell you not even to bother applying it.
What about high temperatures? Higher temperatures make the poly dry quicker, which isn’t necessarily good. It might crack if the outer surface dries too fast, even worse than a slow drying time. So take caution when you apply heat.
When you apply polyurethane on bare wood, keep the windows shut so that dust doesn’t enter. However, given the strong odors from some finishes, mainly oil-based polyurethanes, leave the windows open.
You also need adequate ventilation for the polyurethane finish to dry on time. Yes, there is the risk that the dust might come flying back in. If that happens, sand the coat and apply another poly layer.
A fan is an excellent way of boosting ventilation and getting rid of polyurethane smell without risking as much dust. In my experience, this has rarely been a problem.
The ideal humidity for water-based polyurethane to dry is 50% and 70% for oil-based polyurethane. Of course, brands and products differ.
However, what is consistent is that when it is too humid, the polyurethane will take much longer to dry, and the opposite is also true.
You may be concerned that high temperatures in the summer also mean high humidity in some areas, and you’re right.
In that case, you can control the indoor air quality using three devices:
- A humidifier
- HVAC system
You probably need these devices in your home anyway, so this shouldn’t add to the project’s cost. But if you don’t want to buy them, wait for the right weather conditions.
Related: How to Fix Polyurethane Mistakes
5. The Thickness of the Coat
The rule when applying polyurethanes is always to use thin coats. Thin coats dry faster and more evenly. Plus, they are easier to amend if there is a problem.
When the coat is too thick, the polyurethane will take considerably longer to dry. Be patient and not try to enhance it using a blow-dryer, or the inner coat might cake.
That is why many professionals often advise against the triple-thick coat of poly or one-coat poly. Even though they often claim to dry quickly, they rarely do.
Polyurethane finish can be applied using different techniques, such as spraying, brushing, or wiping.
However, selecting a method that doesn’t afford proper control over the amount being applied might lead to over-application. This later causes a delay in the drying process.
When comparing polyurethanes like wipe-on poly vs brush-on poly, it’s worth mentioning that spray-on or wipe-on dry faster compared to brush-on or roll-on.
The multiple coats applied using the former techniques are thinner and lighter, contributing to a more efficient drying process.
Remember to wear protective equipment to avoid contact with volatile organic compounds.
7. The Type of Sheen
There are four main types of sheen, from lowest to highest:
- Matte (labeled as flat)
- Semi-gloss polyurethane
- Gloss (sometimes referred to as high gloss)
Gloss and semi-gloss finishes take marginally longer to dry for both types of polyurethane.
8. Condition of the Wood
Polyurethane finish dries faster on raw wood. If it is already finished, it will take much longer to dry, especially if you apply water-based polyurethanes over an oil-based product or vice versa.
If you applied a stain and it hasn’t cured, it will also delay the drying time of the polyurethane.
Oil-based polyurethane is dry when you can no longer smell it, and the surface is no longer tacky. Water-based polyurethane is dry when the surface is not cold to the touch.
At this point, you can apply the second coat (after light sanding, of course), apply the third coat and then repeat the subsequent finishing processes. How well you sand the wood may also affect the drying time, especially if it was previously finished.
9. The Formula of the Finish
Finally, the most important factor determining the polyurethane’s drying and curing process is the product you are using.
- Fast-drying variants of oil-based polyurethane dry in a third or even a sixth of the cure time, it takes regular oil-based finishes.
- Fast-drying formulae with water-based polyurethane tends to be half the time.
While the speedy alternatives have pros and cons, this is a significant advantage to consider when planning your next project.
How to Speed Up Polyurethane Drying Time?
The four most reliable ways how to make polyurethane dry faster;
- Increasing the air temperature (70 degrees Fahrenheit is ideal )
- Lowering humidity by opening windows
- Applying thin layers
- Preparing the surface properly before application
If you use a fast-drying alternative, don’t attempt to speed up the drying time unless the polyurethane won’t dry as advertised and expected. Otherwise, you might just ruin the first coat and have to start all over.
Water and oil-based polyurethane cure timetable
|Drying time between Poly coats||1 day||6 hours||Don’t wear shoes nor allow pets|
|Walk with shoes after||2 Days||1 day|
|Furniture replacement after||4 days||2 days||Use furniture legs or pads|
|Keep away rugs or mats for||14 days||14 days||Sweep lightly|
|Cure time||30 days||30 days|
How long does it take for water-based polyurethane to dry on hardwood floors?
About 4 hours. After this, you may walk on the floor with socks. Within three days, you can start moving furniture back on it. However, water-based polyurethane may take up to 21 days to fully cure. Allow sufficient drying time before walking on or placing furniture on the floors to avoid any potential damage to the finish.
If you’re finishing your stair treads and railing, here are some of the best polyurethane for stairs that I recommend.
How long does polyurethane take to dry on wood?
Water-based polyurethane typically takes around 6 hours to dry on wood surfaces. Oil-based polyurethane, on the other hand, requires approximately 24 hours to dry. So water-based polyurethane typically dries faster on wood surfaces compared to oil-based polyurethane.
Water-based products contain lower levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and have a quicker evaporation rate, allowing them to dry in approximately 6 hours. In contrast, oil-based polyurethane takes about 24 hours longer due to its slower evaporation rate.
How to cure polyurethane
You can apply heat to cure polyurethane. Ensure proper ventilation, then use a heat source like a heat gun or space heater to warm the coated surface gently. Maintain a safe distance from the polyurethane surface. Apply gentle heat to the coated area, moving gradually across the surface.
Exercise caution to avoid overheating or damaging the finish.
Interesting read: How long does polyurethane last?
How long for urethane to dry?
Water-based urethanes typically take around 6 hours to dry, while oil-based urethanes require approximately 24 hours after application. Water-based urethanes dry faster due to their lower VOC content and quicker evaporation rate, typically in 6 hours. Oil-based urethanes have a slower evaporation rate, taking around 24 hours to dry.
These differences are due to the solvents and additives used in each formulation.
What is the right Polyurethane drying temperature?
Polyurethane typically dries best at a temperature of around 70°F (21°C) and a humidity level of 50%. Lower temperatures below 70°F (21°C) slow down the drying process of polyurethane. This leads to an extended time required for the polyurethane to dry and fully cure.
On the other hand, higher temperatures above 70°F (21°C), accelerate the drying time, allowing the polyurethane to dry and cure more quickly.
How long for polyurethane to dry between coats?
Between coats, water-based polyurethane typically requires around 2 to 4 hours to dry. This drying time allows for sufficient bonding and preparation for the next coat. On the other hand, oil-based polyurethane generally needs a longer drying time of approximately 8 to 24 hours between coats.
Follow the manufacturer’s instructions to ensure optimal drying and curing between coats.
How long does fast-drying polyurethane take to dry?
Minwax® Fast-Drying Polyurethane typically takes about 3 to 4 hours to dry. This fast-drying formula allows for quicker completion of projects. It dries more quickly than other polys due to its specific formulation.
This fast-drying polyurethane contains additives that promote faster evaporation of solvents, allowing for a shorter drying time. These additives help expedite curing, resulting in a faster dry time.
How long does spray polyurethane take to dry?
Within 2 hours of application, spray polyurethane should be dry to the touch. At this point, you can add the second coat. You would need to wait overnight before it is ready for light use and at least 3 days before it has fully cured. You can use at least three coats.
Read also: Can you use polyurethane over shellac?
How long does it take for Minwax polyurethane to dry?
Minwax polyurethane drying time is between 4-6 hours. The fastest-drying oil-based Minwax polyurethane is dry in as little as 4 hours, while the quickest water-based polyurethane is dry in 2 hours. Even the Minwax first Coat dries in just 2 hours.
How long does Varathane polyurethane take to dry?
The fastest drying Varathane polyurethane takes 2 hours to dry. When applied with an aerosol, it can be dry in just 30 minutes. The finished surface will be dry enough for light use after 24 hours and cured enough for normal use in 3 days.
When can you walk on polyurethane wood floors?
When using water-based or fast-drying oil-based finish, you can walk on polyurethane wood floors with socks in 24 hours. After 7 days, you can put heavy things on polyurethane wood floors.
How long does fast-drying polyurethane take to dry?
Fast-drying polyurethane takes up to 4 hours for oil-based and 2 hours for water-based formula. It depends on the brand of fast-drying poly you use, temperature, and humidity conditions. You can always speed up the drying process using a hair dryer or fan to circulate air around the polyurethane drying area.
How long does it take for polyurethane to cure?
Polyurethane takes around 30 days to cure fully. However, it will dry to the touch between 24 and 48 hours. So, if you want to put a coat of polyurethane on your project, you can expect it to be ready in about a month.
The best temperature to apply polyurethane
The perfect temperature to apply polyurethane ranges from -62°C to 93°C. If the temperature is too cold, the polyurethane will become difficult to spread, and if too hot, the polyurethane will begin evaporating and become difficult to work with. Apply your polyurethane in conditions within this ideal temperature range for the best results.
Varathane water-based polyurethane dry time?
The dry time for Varathane water-based polyurethane can last between 1 to 3 days. After 24 hours, the finish will be dry for light use. However, to be sure, it’s advisable to wait for 3 days before resuming normal usage of your surface.
Final Thoughts on How Long for Polyurethane to Dry
As you have seen, there is a vast difference between drying and curing times. Answering the question ‘how long to wait for polyurethane to dry’ is complicated because the user might mean curing time.
But I’ve also tackled how long for polyurethane to cure fully. Many factors affect drying times, so be sure to get conditions as close to optimal as possible.
While water-based polyurethane dries quickly, it takes almost as long as oil-based polyurethane to cure fully.