The more you learn about polyurethane, the more you find yourself asking – why can’t it be more like paint?
Or at least that’s how I felt when I first started. Everything about it seemed so complicated. Now, applying polyurethane is second nature to me, and I’m here to make it easier for you too.
In this article, you will learn:
- How many coats of polyurethane you should apply for different jobs
- Why do you often need more than one coat
- If and how you should use one coat of polyurethane
- How long to wait between coats
How Many Coats of Polyurethane?
For best results, apply at least two coats of polyurethane. When working on floors, tables, chairs, and furniture that will be used often, apply at least three coats. If you are using water-based polyurethane, you can apply up to four or five coats on floors and sheds.
What Is Polyurethane Coating?
Polyurethane is a coating type that can be either oil-based or water-based. Out of these two categories, oil-based polyurethane has been around for the longest time. Water-based has only just recently been developed.
Polyurethane coating mixes polyurethane resin with alkyd resin to create the varnish formula we are accustomed to.
Pretty much any varnish on the market, specifically the oil-type, has alkyd in its formula. By adding polyurethane resin in the mix as well, the coating obtains higher durability. This makes polyurethane coating heat-resistant, scratch-resistant, and water-resistant as well.
Water-based polyurethane also features polyurethane resin, but rather than mixing alkyd resin, it uses acrylic resin instead. The coating has a different formula, so it may have different levels of resistance – but at the same time, it has multiple comfort benefits.
However, both have the same level of quality if chosen for the right purpose.
Water-Based vs. Oil-Based Polyurethane Coating
Water-based and oil-based polyurethane coatings have different purposes, based on your needs. It is essential that you understand the differences between the two so that you know exactly how to apply them.
Oil-Based Polyurethane Coating
Oil-based polyurethane coating is a classic option that has been around for a long time. Not only is it strong and resistant to damage, but once it has cured, it can also resist all kinds of influences.
This type of polyurethane coating leaves a thicker layer, which may significantly influence the number of coats you will need. It also gets a very slight amber-like hue once it’s dried, which can add a bit of warmth to wood objects.
Due to its thicker formula, oil-based is a slow drying polyurethane . So, it might not be a suitable choice when you are trying to get the project done fast.
Also, it has higher VOC levels, which means the odor is stronger as well. It is mostly recommended to be used in properly ventilated areas.
How many coats of oil-based polyurethane?
Apply three to four coats of oil-based polyurethane if you want a high gloss finish. But you may need to use the fifth coat depending on how much surface runs and drips are seen during application.
The number of coats can be determined by the desired glossiness and depth of color, but normally at least two.
Water-Based Polyurethane Coating
Strong odors are not everyone’s cup of tea. This is where water-based polyurethane coating comes in, as it is a more environmentally friendly option. Releasing fewer VOC levels, not only is it better for the overall environment but is also a safer choice for your health.
The formula for water-based polyurethane is not as thick as with the oil-based kind, so usually, it dries a lot faster. On average, it takes about 6 to 12 hours for the surface to be ready – which is half the time you need for oil-based polyurethane coating.
With that in mind, the formula may not be as durable and may cause slight raises in the wood grain. As a result of this phenomenon, you will likely need more sanding and extra coats to cover that lift.
Water-based polyurethane applies in thinner layers, which means that it is less likely to drip. This makes the application much easier to handle even by beginner DIY painters.
How Many Coats of Water Based Polyurethane
Five and six coats of water-based polyurethane to reach its optimum properties. For a less durable surface, three or four coats of waterbased poly will create an adequate finish – but sacrificing some smoothness and clarity in your finish.
Is One Coat of Polyurethane Enough?
No, one coat of Polyurethane is not enough to provide a nice finish. . Apply three to four coats of polyurethane for a professional quality finish. A single coat won’t protect the wood from scratching and denting.
Like I mentioned earlier, applying polyurethane can be a tricky affair. Different problems tend to arise after the first coat, such as brush marks (or lint when using a roller), dust nibs, and bubbles.
As much as the flattening agents in polyurethane are meant to level out bubbles and brush marks, it rarely works on the first coat.
If these problems occur, you need to sand out the imperfections and then apply at least one more coat. After you apply the second coat, you will notice that the surface is smoother and has fewer imperfections.
If there are still bubbles or the wood doesn’t look glossy enough, then you need to learn how to apply polyurethane without bubbles.
Applying a third (and usually final) coat of polyurethane will do the trick. This will yield an excellent finish and will protect your wood from the elements for years.
Are 4 Coats of Polyurethane too Much?
In most circumstances, you only need three coats of oil-based polyurethane. You can use four or five coats of water-based polyurethane for hardwood floors, especially those that will see a lot of traffic or a lot of moisture.
For all other projects, manufacturers usually recommend three coats, even for water-based applications.
When you are reviving old furniture that already has a finish on it, you won’t need more than two coats. However, if you sanded the old piece down to the stain, then you would need at least three coats of water-based polyurethane.
Whatever you are working on, you won’t go wrong with applying four coats of polyurethane. The only downside is that the project will take longer to complete, and it will cost more.
Actual Number of Coats of Polyurethane for 11 Popular Products
The number of coats varies by brand and type of polyurethane. There are three main types: oil-based, water-based, water-based oil-modified formulations.
Below is a table depicting the actual polyurethane coats for several popular brands so you can have a rough idea of how many coats to apply.
|Product||Number of coats||Hours between coats||Best for|
|Minwax Wipe-On Poly||Three||2 to 3||Carved or profiled surfaces|
|Minwax Stain-and-Poly Combo||Two||6||Furniture, cabinets, trim|
|Minwax High-build||Two||4 to 6||Tabletops|
|Minwax Fast Drying||2 to 3||4 to 6||Cabinets, floors, furniture|
|Minwax Polycrylic||Three||2||Light-colored woods|
|Water-based oil-modified||Three||2||Doors, cabinets, furniture|
|Oil based Spar urethane||Three||4||Exterior doors, trim|
|Water-based spar urethane||Four||2||Doors, trim, and furniture|
How many Layers of Polyurethane: Is One-Coat Polyurethane Good?
Due to the long drying time of polyurethane, a few manufacturers have been trying to come up with quicker and easier solutions. An increasingly popular alternative is a product called one coat polyurethane.
Just as the name implies, you only need one coat to get an excellent-looking finish on any wooden object. Or at least, that is what they say. Another name it goes by is triple-thick polyurethane. These products are usually water-based.
The one coat or triple thick poly is noticeably thicker than oil-based polyurethane. As a result, it is more difficult to apply, and I am yet to meet any professional who would rather use this than go through the hassle of applying other coats three times.
The main reason is that getting a smooth finish with a single coat is nearly impossible. As it does not level out as it dries, you will see a lot of brush marks on the one coat. You, therefore, need to sand it and apply a second coat before it becomes smooth.
Ironically, you might still need a third coat of the so-called one-coat poly. For a product that costs more, it really isn’t worth the trouble.
The one instance where I recommend the one coat is when you are building something that does not need to be aesthetically pleasing. Shelves in your garage, for example, or children’s toys built for destruction.
One coat is quite durable and can withstand more abuse than regular poly, making it ideal for these types of construction.
Number of Polyurethane Coats By Surface
Now you know that you need to apply multiple coats of polyurethane, is the number the same for all the surfaces?
How many coats of Polyurethane on wood countertops?
You need at least two coats of polyurethane on wood countertops. If this is a surface that is going to be used a lot, then apply a third coat. If you are using water-based polyurethane and it raises the grain of the wood, you may need more than three coats.
How many coats of Polyurethane on kitchen table?
You should use at least three coats of polyurethane on a kitchen table. Just like floors, kitchen tables will go through a lot of abuse – liquid spillage, cutlery constantly scratching and pots banging -, so it needs more protection. With three coats, you won’t need to refinish the table anytime soon.
How many coats of Polyurethane on cabinets
Cabinets should be finished with a minimum of three to four coats of polyurethane to get a professional-looking finish. Some people may be tempted to stop after the first coat, but more can make a huge difference in appearance and durability.
Again, how many coats of polyurethane you’ll need depends on how deep the stain is, and whether or not the coat was water-based or oil-based.
How many coats of Water-based Polyurethane on hardwood floors?
Most manufacturers recommend three to four coats of water-based polyurethane on hardwood floors. You’ll only need more coats if you’re using a water-based finish not made for floors, or you overdiluted the poly.
However, if you haven’t gotten a smooth finish by the fourth application, sand it over and apply another coat. Keep going until you get the desired result.
How many coats of Polyurethane on stairs?
Stairs are high-traffic areas, so you should apply at least 3 coats of polyurethane. The same is true for water-based and oil-based poly alike.
If you applied a sealer coat, you may only need two coats of water-based polyurethane., but as always, keep going until you get a smooth finish.
If you’re looking for satin or semi-gloss poly for stairs, worry no more as we’ve reviewed best polyurethane for stair treads that will definitely for your needs.
Also, find out how to make wood stairs non slip in our comprehensive guide.
How many coats of polyurethane on guitar
You require 3 coats of polyurethane to keep their guitar in the best condition. Others find one coat works well enough for them. If you play in a band where the setlist can involve banging metal or potentially water-logged conditions, then three coats would make sense too.
How Do I Apply the Polyurethane Coating?
Applying a polyurethane coating is quite simple, as long as you follow the right steps. Here is what you’ll have to do:
Step 1: Prepare the surface
Whether it’s an item, a cabinet, or the floor, the surface needs to be completely clean before you apply the polyurethane. If dust or debris remains, it will create lumps under the polyurethane.
Step 2: Stir the formula gently
The polyurethane may have arrived prepared, but some compounds may have separated while it stood in the can. Before you apply, make sure to gently stir everything together so that the mix is smooth.
A clean paint stick should do the trick just fine.
Step 3: Apply the first coat
Use a stiff brush to apply the first polyurethane layer. This layer doesn’t have to be particularly thinned out, as it allows the polyurethane to adhere properly to the wood.
Only thin it out if the surface was already coated with polyurethane before.
Step 4: Allow drying time
Even if the polyurethane boasts a 30-minute drying time, allow at least 6-12 hours for water-based polyurethane and 24-36 hours for oil-based polyurethane. Once this time passes, you may proceed with the next step.
Step 5: Sand the surface
Once the first layer of polyurethane has dried, take some light grit sandpaper and begin sanding the surface. Do it gently; you don’t want to take off the whole layer of polyurethane after just applying it.
Make sure that you clean the surface properly after sanding it and that you do not leave any stray dust or debris behind. Use a lint-free cloth to gently wipe everything away.
Step 6: Apply the second coat
With the first layer of polyurethane having dried and sanded, it is time you proceed with the second layer. You don’t necessarily have to sand if you must apply more than two coats.
Starting with the second coat, keep the layers thin.
Tips for Applying Polyurethane
When applying the polyurethane coating, you must be very careful about the procedure. Here are some tips that you’ll want to keep in mind:
- Stir the mix rather than shaking it. When you shake the polyurethane mix, there’s a good chance that bubbles will form. Stirring will prevent that from happening.
- Use a synthetic brush to apply water-based polyurethane coating. Check out the best roller for polyurethane if you’re looking to roll on polyurethane.
- Apply a thin coat if you want to prevent dripping. You can always add another layer once it dries. For thin coats, use sprayers or wipes.
- If you are short on time, thinning the layers will also work. The thinner the layer, the faster it will dry.
- Don’t thin out the formula if it’s the first layer. The first polyurethane layer should be slightly thicker, as it needs to stick to the wood and create an even surface to work with.
- If you decide to use a brush in order to apply oil-based polyurethane, make sure that you use a high-quality brush. If you use a low-quality one, you may end up with streaks and/or bubbles.
- Don’t wipe the brush on the edge of the can. If you want to get rid of excess polyurethane, simply tap the brush over the container. This will prevent the formation of bubbles.
- Brush the polyurethane along with the wood grain so that it seeps into the pores. This will give you an even surface.
- When applying polyurethane, keep the brush into a solvent, such as water or mineral spirit. This will make it easier for you to clean the brush when you are done.
- When sanding between polyurethane coats, use fine-grit sandpaper. This way, you can be certain that there won’t be any awkward streaks underneath the final layer.
- Never apply a new layer of polyurethane on surfaces that are not completely dry. Not only will this lead to streaks, but it might also cause drips to occur. Only apply once it has dried completely.
Prepping the wood before applying the polyurethane is essential. However, if you follow the tips above, it should be fairly easy for you to apply the polyurethane without any issues.
Pay attention to your technique, and the final surface should be streak-free, drip-free, and bubble-free.
Related Article: How to Strip Polyurethane from Wood Without Sanding
Are 2 coats of polyurethane enough?
2 coats of polyurethane are enough to protect the wood from moisture and contaminants. However, for added protection against water damage, about three or four coats of polyurethane would suffice.
How many coats of polyurethane on furniture?
Use 2 coats of polyurethane if you’re just refinishing plain old wood. If you’re restoring wood with a grain or color contrast, it can take more than 5 coats to get a good result. If you have blemishes of any kind on your surface (they really need to be removed before applying a new coat), three coats may do the trick. Always of course test for tackiness before applying another coat – that way you don’t have to worry about ruining your final product with an extra coat of poly.
Can I thin polyurethane?
Yes, you can thin polyurethane. As a matter of fact, thinning polyurethane makes it easier to use. This is because the poly levels better, so brush marks disappear better. You may also choose not to thin polyurethane, especially water-based polyurethane. Some people say thinning helps the poly bond better, but that isn’t true. The most significant benefit is that it dries quicker, thus reducing the time between sanding and reapplication. Here’s how to thin polyurethane.
How many coats of polyurethane on stained wood?
3 to 4 coats of polyurethane when applying water-based polyurethane on an oil-based stain. However, you might need more coats if you diluted the poly a lot more than recommended by the manufacturer. Water-based poly might raise wood grain, and you will require extra coats, up to even 7 for a smooth finish.
How many coats of wipe on poly?
3-5 good even coats of wipe-on poly should be enough for most applications. Generally, the number of coats you’ll need when using wipe-on poly will vary depending on how much your final coat is glossier than your previous coats and whether it scuffs easily.
Read also: Wipe-on poly vs brush and gain insights into the best application method for achieving your desired finish.
How Should I thin the different types of polyurethane?
The best product for thinning oil-based polyurethane is mineral spirits, while water should be used for water-based polyurethane. However, as mentioned earlier, you can do without thinning water-based finishes. Another alternative for thinning oil-based polyurethane is paint thinner. Paint thinner is technically mineral spirit, but it has more impurities, so it should only be used if you can’t find mineral spirits. Naptha is another mineral spirit you can use, but it is highly flammable.
How long between coats of polyurethane?
You can apply the next coat of water-based polyurethane, usually within 2-6 hours. Despite the instructions by some manufacturers, you should wait for at least 24 hours when using oil-based polyurethane. However, you can apply another coat of fast-drying oil-based polyurethane within 4 to 6 hours. One factor that determines the wait time is if and how you have thinned the product. Thinning significantly reduces the wait time, but try not to overdo it, or you’ll end up needing more coats.
Can you apply the second coat of polyurethane without sanding?
Even if you use a water-based polyurethane coating that is on the self-leveling side, applying a second coat without sanding is not a very good idea. Read what happens if you do not sand between coats of poly to learn more. Once you apply the second coat, it will look unsightly and far from flawless and smooth. Also, it doesn’t make the polyurethane last for a longer time. If you sand the surface, not only do you prevent any drips and runs, but you also ensure the final coat will look even and smooth.
How quickly should the coats of polyurethane dry?
This depends on the polyurethane coating that you use. If you are using water-based polyurethane coating, then the whole thing should be dry in about 6 hours. However, oil-based polyurethane can take as long as 24 hours to dry. Factors such as ventilation, humidity, temperature, and thickness of the layer may also influence how quickly they should dry.
How many coats of polyurethane on interior doors
Interior doors may be finished with up to five coats of polyurethane. Brush or spray on an even, thin coat and then allow the polyurethane to dry before applying a second coat. When lightly sanding between coats and re-applying, it’s important to paint in one direction and not over puddles so as to avoid trapping air bubbles below your fresh layer of paint!
Do I need to sand the final coat of polyurethane?
While there is no problem with sanding the first coat (in fact, it is actually recommended), sanding polyurethane final coat polyurethane isn’t a good idea. Instead, try spraying it or layering it as smoothly and evenly as possible. The final layer will be the base that remains visible, so sanding it might just ruin the whole look.
Can you put too many coats of polyurethane?
Remember that the more coats you add, the longer it may take to dry. Four coats may be fine in certain circumstances, but more than that can be problematic. There is indeed a chance that it will look fine – but at the same time, it might peel or turn yellow. Three coats of polyurethane should be more than enough.
How many coats of varathane polyurethane?
At least 3 coats of Varathane polyurethane is okay. If the wood grain raises, sand smooth before applying the final coat of varathane polyurethane. The number of coats will depend on how thick of a sheen you want and also the porosity level of wood.
How many coats of polyurethane on pine walls?
Two or three coats are adequate to provide quality protection. It’s best to let the first coat dry completely before you start the second one, otherwise, all hopes for a smooth finish will be lost.
How many coats of polyurethane on table?
Apply at least three coats of polyurethane to the table to obtain a flawless finish. However, you may add more polyurethane coats to make the table appear glossy and glittering. Allow ample time for each coat to dry thoroughly.
How many coats of polyurethane on butcher block?
Use three or more coats of Polyurethane on a butcher block, especially if you’re applying an oil-based finish. Prepare the first coat with mineral spirits. This will serve as a sealer and aid in the prevention of wood-to-oil interaction. Apply the polyurethane coats with a bristle brush.
No matter how tricky it might seem to use polyurethane, its advantages outweigh any disadvantages. It may take some getting used to, but it is a skill worth mastering for personal and professional reasons.
Now that you know how many coats of polyurethane you need on your project, it’s important to get the timing right. Check out our quick response on How Long to Wait Between Coats of Polyurethane on Hardwood Floors?