No matter how gorgeous your woodworking project is, you know that it can all be for nothing if you don’t use the right protective coat.
While this is typically an easy task, some products try to trip people up. The urethanes are one such example.
Indeed, products that sound the same can be used interchangeably, right? Well, that is mainly true, but some key differences make picking spar urethane vs Polyurethane slightly tricky.
So, we’ll explain the main differences between them and when to use each one for excellent results.
What is the Difference Between Spar urethane and Polyurethane
The difference between polyurethane and spar urethane is that Spar urethane is a more water-resistant finish. It can easily be applied in high humidity conditions, where polyurethane might fail if not given time to cure before the humidity rises.
But Spar urethane paint is more sensitive to chemicals and alcohol than polyurethane. When these chemicals are used to clean the surface of the wood, their effect on the finish may be detrimental. Polyurethane, on the other hand, is resistant to most chemicals, including ethanol.
What is Spar Urethane?
Spar urethane is a special type of varnish that was originally meant for boats. The older version was called spar varnish, as it was applied on the spar of sailing boats.
As you would expect, these products are waterproof and resist UV light rather brilliantly. However, for the product to become more suitable for interior use, manufacturers started adding urethane plastic as part of the resins, thus came spar urethane.
Fortunately, the urethane did not stop it from being UV and water-repellant. Now, you can use spar urethane for many interior and exterior woodworking projects, especially the surfaces exposed to a lot of moisture and sunlight.
There are two main types of spar urethane:
- Oil-based spar urethane
- Water-based spar urethane
Spar urethane is a durable finish that will also protect your wooden surfaces from scratches, dents, and chemical spills.
Both types of spar urethane accomplish the same tasks, but oil-based spar urethane dries slower, has a more pungent smell, and tends to yellow over time.
What is Polyurethane?
Polyurethane is a durable, water-resistant finish that dries very hard. It can be used on a wide range of furniture but is mainly used on floors, tables, fences, and other surfaces that need protection from water and scratches.
Given how thick Polyurethane can be, it is rarely used for high-end furniture.
The two main types of Polyurethane are:
- Oil-based polyurethane
- Water-based polyurethane
While they both do the same thing, each one has its unique advantages and disadvantages. For example, oil-based Polyurethane gives a warm glow to wood, and it yellows over time.
Water-based poly dries very clear and remains clear. Both can be used to protect wooden surfaces for over a decade when applied and maintained correctly.
Spar Urethane Pros and Cons
- PROTECTIVE CLEAR FINISH – Minwax Helmsman Water Based Spar Urethane is a crystal clear wood finish that is specially formulated to protect against nature’s toughest conditions.
- EFFECTIVE YEAR ROUND – This wood varnish forms a protective barrier against rain and moisture to protect your projects and keep them looking their best. Special oils allow the finish to expand & contract with the wood as seasons and temperatures change.
- VERSATILE – Ideal for use on doors, windows, trim, bathroom cabinets, bar tops, kitchen countertops, outdoor furniture and more. It’s a versatile water-based spar urethane that dries quickly and cleans up easily with warm water.
- GLOSS FINISH – Give your wood projects a sleek finish with this gloss clear varnish. It not only protects the natural beauty of the wood, but offers a shiny, sleek sheen for a modern look. It’s ideal for use over light colored woods and stains.
- A BRAND YOU CAN TRUST – Minwax is America’s leading brand of wood finishing and wood care products. Since 1904, we have been inspiring consumers to Keep on Finishing. We offer consumers a complete line of products to meet every wood finishing need.
- Scratch and water-resistant
- It is easy to apply
- It dries quickly
- It has UV blockers
- It does not dry very hard
- It needs to be reapplied occasionally
Polyurethane Pros and Cons
- Protects indoor wood surfaces such as furniture, windows, cabinets, trim and more
- Water based formula dries fast and cleans up with soap and water
- Dries to the touch in 30 minutes with coverage up to 31.25 sq. ft., recoat after 2 hours
- Durable formula provides outstanding stain and scratch resistance with excellent clarity
- Gloss finish creates a polished and clean look
- Thick coat that lasts for a very long time
- Scratch, chemical and water-resistant
- Dries hard and can handle a lot of wear and tear
- It can be applied in different ways
- It takes a long time to dry
- Emits high quantities of VOCs
Polyurethane vs Spar urethane: In-Depth Feature Comparison
Now that we’ve got the niceties out of the way, it’s time to put these two products against each other and see who comes out on top.
But before we do, it is important to establish some glaring differences. Every mainstream spar urethane product can be used both inside and outside the house.
However, Polyurethane is sold as either interior or exterior Polyurethane. As such, interior and exterior Polyurethane have slightly different attributes.
So, to keep it simple, we will be focusing more on the interior use of these products.
Spar Urethane Vs. Polyurethane – Ease of Application
When working with a new product, one of the first things you need to know is how easy it is to apply. Yes, it may look great, but if the method is complex, you are better off sticking with what you know.
A lot of people say that spar urethane is easier to apply than Polyurethane, but that is slightly misleading.
The application process for both products is identical in every way: scuff the underlying surface, clean it up, add the first coat, wait for it to dry, and then add the second coat and repeat as needed.
Some people give spar urethane the edge because the brush strokes are not as visible compared to Polyurethane. This is true because spar urethane is a softer material, so it tends to level better.
However, that is only the case when you’re applying oil-based Polyurethane. Water-based Polyurethane does not have the same issues with brush strokes and dust nibs as the oil-based version. Besides, you can either wipe on or brush on polyurethaneane!
This is an important distinction as many people now use water-based poly more often, even though this caveat won’t change the overall grade.
Verdict – spar urethane by a narrow margin
Urethane vs polyurethane clear coat– Drying Times
This is another hot topic that gets a lot of one-sided answers. However, ask nearly anyone that has used these two products before, and they’ll tell you that spar urethane dries much quicker than Polyurethane.
Again, that’s very misleading.
Polyurethane is notorious for drying way too slowly. One coat can take up to 24 hours before you can apply the next one. One day per coat? Absolutely ridiculous! On the other hand, spar urethane is ready for a subsequent coat in just 4 hours.
That is a ridiculous margin, and it would be tempting to stop the comparison right then.
However, that is only when you are referring to traditional oil-based Polyurethane and not the fast-drying types. Fast-drying, oil-based Polyurethane is dry in as little as 4 to 6 hours, which is a massive improvement.
It is important to note that some companies now only sell their fastest drying oil-based polys, so judging by old standards is obsolete.
As for the water-based versions of both products, they are both ready for a new coat in just 2 hours.
Even the curing times for the water-based options are identical, as are oil-based spar urethane and fast-drying oil-based Polyurethane.
Now, when you consider options like one-coat poly and wipe-on poly, the drying time shrinks even further, thus making it slightly faster than spar urethane. So, all in all, this is a tighter race than imagined.
Verdict – tie
Polyurethane vs Spar urethane – Toxicity
Now, we get to an option without any hope for a comeback. Polyurethane is great at many things and for many things, but the environment is not one of them.
Contained in Polyurethane are isocyanates and other products that emit high quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Some VOCs are known carcinogens, i.e Benzene – and they can also irritate the eyes, lungs, and skin during use.
As a result, you need to be extra careful when using Polyurethane, especially oil-based. The only saving grace is that after Polyurethane dries, it is no longer harmful.
Before you get the wrong idea, I must mention that spar urethane also emits high quantities of VOCs, though not as high as Polyurethane. This is true for both the water-based and oil-based versions.
If we compare water-based spar urethane vs polyurethane, it is possible to find a few water-based versions that emit lower VOCs than water-based spar urethane, but this is not common.
On average, spar urethane tends to be much safer for both people and the environment.
Verdict – spar urethane
Urethane vs polyurethane finish – Durability
Now, this is the point of the comparison where we get tough, really tough (pun intended). Fortunately, that is very easy for Polyurethane.
As you probably know by now, Polyurethane is one of the toughest topcoats for interior woodwork. Its unique combination of resins and solvents makes it dry very hard, and it will maintain this firmness for years to come.
This is true of both oil-based Polyurethane and water-based. You will still hear some people say that oil-based poly is tougher, but those are reviewers that are still hung up on older, disappointing versions of water-based Polyurethane.
On the other hand, spar urethane is tough, but it doesn’t dry as hard as Polyurethane. As these products are made for interior and exterior use, they maintain a bit of flexibility.
That is because as the weather changes, outdoor wood will expand and contract. Therefore, the topcoat needs to be able to do likewise without breaking or peeling.
As a result, spar urethane doesn’t dry as hard as interior poly. Consequently, spar urethane is not as durable.
While Polyurethane can last for one to two decades, water-based spar urethane may last five years and oil-based up to thrice as long.
Spar urethane is also more likely to suffer irreparable damage long before that time.
Verdict – Polyurethane
Polyurethane vs urethane – Ambering
When considering the longevity of a product, it is also meaningful to include its desirability. By this, we are referring to the point at which the finish begins to hurt your eyes, and you want a change.
The primary reason why you may want to change the undamaged wood finish is ambering. Oil-based finishes have an amber hue, which gets noticeably darker over time. While this might not be a problem on dark woods, it can be displeasing on lighter woods or light paint colors.
But then, even with darker woods, you may not complain for the first few years, but it may eventually get on your nerves. Therefore, it would be safe to say that ambering should also be considered a part of durability.
In this argument, oil-based Polyurethane has no leg to stand on. It is undeniably yellow and gets more so as it ages. The same is true for oil-based spar urethane.
Let’s look at water-based spar urethane vs Polyurethane.
Where we have a distinction is with the water-based options. Water-based poly is crystal clear and remains that way until the end of time. Sadly, the same cannot be said for water-based spar urethane.
While it is also technically a crystal clear coat, it ambers on light stains and woods. So, before you use it this way, you first need to test it on an inconspicuous part of the surface to ensure it doesn’t yellow.
Does water based polyurethane yellow? To be fair, some cheap water-based polyurethanes yellow when in contact with white paint, and some poor products will yellow, but they tend to behave well on light wood and stains.
Verdict – polyurethane by a comfortable margin
Helmsman-spar urethane vs. polyurethane – Protection from Elements
Now, this is spar urethanes strong suit and probably a slightly unfair comparison. As mentioned earlier, spar urethane was originally made for boats, so it can weather the weather like no other.
Spar urethane can handle UV rays without the woodturning gray, and it can also take a lot of abuse from water.
However, as this is a slightly softer finish than Polyurethane, spar urethane can look milky when exposed to a lot of moisture.
This might make you think the finish is no longer working, but it becomes clear once more when it dries. Polyurethane does not have that problem, but it definitely cannot handle as much moisture or sunlight.
Only exterior Polyurethane normally comes with UV blockers. Interior versions can’t hold a candle to spar urethane.
So, if you need to apply a top coat on interior wood that will be exposed to the sun all day, you’re better off with spar urethane.
Verdict – spar urethane
Spar Urethane Vs. Polyurethane – Versatility
Polyurethane is a wonderful product for many reasons, one of which is its versatility. As it is a very resistant product, it can be used on any wooden surface.
Unfortunately, that is not the same with spar urethane. The significant difference between how to use both products is floors.
While you can apply Polyurethane to wood floors, you cannot do the same with spar urethane. Since spar urethane is a tad soft, it will quickly wear off in high-traffic areas.
Being constantly pounded by feet, furniture, shoes, golf clubs, falling chairs, and everything else will damage it.
On the other hand, Polyurethane dries hard and remains hard enough to handle any form of abuse for years without weakening.
Besides floors, you may not want to use spar urethane on any surface you want to be rock hard. This could be tabletops, kitchen countertops, or coffee tables – if, like me, you tend to rest your feet on them.
As great as spar urethane is, not being able to use it on some of the surfaces that need it most is a bit of an issue.
Verdict – Polyurethane
Can you put polyurethane over spar urethane?
No, you should not put Polyurethane over spar urethane. This is because oil-based Polyurethane or interior varnish have a lower oil ratio than spar urethane. You should sand down the old finish and apply the same finish like the one you’ve removed. This will give you a good finish without requiring any extra work.
Can you put spar urethane over polyurethane
Yes, as long as it’s completely dry, you can put spar urethane over PolyureSpare. Spar urethanes are a little trickier to use but can be very forgiving and adhere well to multiple types of paint.
We recommend you test the adhesion on a small inconspicuous area first before going all out on your project.
Poly vs spar urethane FAQs
What is spar urethane used for?
Spar urethane is a great topcoat for interior and exterior wood surfaces. Spar urethane has UV blockers and is water-resistant, so it is great for objects that will be exposed to water and/or sunlight. The protective spar urethane forms a barrier against moisture and rain.
Does spar urethane turn yellow?
Oil-based spar urethane will turn yellow, while water-based spar urethane will not yellow. However, some brands of water-based spar urethane turn yellow when applied to light woods and light stains.
Before applying on any light-colored surface, test the spar urethane on a small portion to see if it yellows.
Can I use spar urethane on floors?
No, you should not use spar urethane on interior floors. Spar urethane is flexible because it is designed to expand and contract as the weather changes.
However, floors need a very hard finish due to all the movements and heavy materials they come in contact with.
Is polyurethane better than spar urethane?
It depends on the usage. Polyurethane is great for interior floors while spar urethene is good for outdooor woodworks that will be exposed to too much sunlight and temperature changes.
Spar urethane vs spar varnish
The difference between spar urethane and spar varnish is that spar varnish is known to eventually chalk off or chip over time, while spar urethane can maintain a hard, shiny surface for a long period.
Spar Urethane Vs Polyurethane Verdict
Comparing exceptional topcoats is never easy, especially when they have different purposes.
Therefore, you need to choose based on how you plan to use them.
Use spar urethane when:
- The wooden surface will be exposed to sunlight
- When there is a lot of moisture
- You need a bit of flexibility on the surface
- Minimizing toxicity is a priority
Use polyurethane when:
- Working on high-traffic areas
- You want to protect a surface for years
- Working on large surfaces
- Working on light colors
Again, spar urethane was made for a different purpose from Polyurethane.
What to Do Next
Many people are under the impression that lacquer and Polyurethane have a lot in common. They’re wrong. There are some key differences between lacquer and Polyurethane that will make your life easier when choosing which is best for you.